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Cotton

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Raw cotton

Among all the natural vegetable fibers, cotton by far has the most economic importance. Its widespread use as a raw material for cloth is largely due to the ease with which its fibers can be spun into yarns. Cotton's strength, absorbency, and capacity to be washed and dyed also make it adaptable to a wide range of textile products. Cotton has been grown and used in India for more than 5000 years. Cotton was also used by the ancient Chinese; the Egyptians and Indian tribes in North and South America.

The Fibers

Cotton is produced by small trees and shrubs which bear the botanical name Gossypium. 1 or 2 weeks after sowing, shoots appear and 50 to 80 days later, flowering begins. First, the buds are formed and after 3 weeks, blossoms appear after which the petals fall off and the offspring or the ‘boll’ develops. The ‘boll’ is divided by partitions in to 3-5 sections containing seeds, and the fiber grows on the seeds.

Cultivation

Successful cultivation of cotton requires a long growing season, plenty of sunshine and water during the period of growth, and dry weather during harvest. It is cultivated in countries with hot climate as India, China, Egypt, USA, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan etc.

In India, cotton is cultivated in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Cotton is sown around May & June and harvested around Sept to Dec in different parts of the country.

A number of methods, chemical and mechanical, have been used to control weeds and grass, including intensive spraying of herbicide before and after planting. The cultivator, rotary hoe, and flame cultivator are also used to destroy weeds.

Cotton Linter

Cotton linters are the residual fibers which stick to the cotton seeds of the cotton plant after most of the cotton 'boll' has been extracted for use. These are long, shiny, silky and curly fibers that are typically only a few mm long. Due to this, they are not suitable for producing cloth, and are generally used in the manufacture of paper, as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. After refining or further processing, they are used for several medical, cosmetic and several other practical uses.

We can supply the best quality and 100% natural cotton linters. 1st. cut produced from "Cotton Ginning Industries" is processed from raw cotton in super cleaners, prior to pressing the bales. The 1st. cut cotton linter's staple length is 5 to 10 mm max. 2nd. cut is produced from "Cotton Seeds Expelling Industries", and from solvent or oil extractions plant in Delinted Machines. Lints are removed from cotton seeds and 2nd. cut cotton linters produced, the staple lengths being 2 mm. to 5mm. max. 3rd. cut cotton linters are of lower grade compared to 1st. cut cotton linters.

Fibre Types:

There are broadly three classes: Mill Run (Longest fibre), First cut (Long fibre) and Second cut (Shorter fibre)

Fibre Properties:

Fibre Length mm Millrun/First cut 1.6-2.0; Second cut 1.0-1.4, Fibre Coarseness ?g/m Mill run /First cut 230-260; Second cut 200-250 Bauer McNett 14 mesh Screen Retention % Mill run/First cut 35-50; Second cut 1-20

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