Speciality Fats
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Sal

SAL (Shorea Robusta) is the most famous of all the species of Shorea (Dipterocarpacceae) found in India. It is a semi-deciduous, gregarious tree, usually with a height of 18-30 feet, which grows mainly in moist evergreen regions of India which covers 14% of the total forest area spread across the states of Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, HP, Haryana, Uttaranchal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

The fruit of the Sal tree contains the oil seeds bear that bear approximately 14%-15% oil content. The amount of oil collected from Sal seeds is about 1.25 – 1.5 lakh tons annually. In the matured fruit, the enclosed nut remains green but gradually turns brown on storage. It browns quickly on artificial drying. On the basis of extensive studies carried out in the country it has been found that sal seed meal could serve as a source of energy in animal feeds.

SAL Fat: Chemical profile

Sal fat is greenish brown in color with a typical odor. It’s typical fatty acid composition shows C16 (4%), C18 (47%), C18:2 (0.5%) and C20 (2.8%). The presence of small amounts of the C20 acid, however does not affect the fatty acid composition which reveals the presence of 9, 10-epoxy stearic acid, and 9, 10-dihyroxy stearic acid. These are undesirable, because the glycerides containing these fatty acid viz., GSEpS (9%) and GSEpU (3%) interfere in the sharp melting characteristics of the cocoa butter substitutes. Hence in the refined sal fat specification, 3.0% is set as the max limit for the combined amount of epoxy and dihydroxy acid glycerides. A 2-stage acetone fractionation process gives a sal mid-fraction (45% yield) that is suitable for use in preparing cocoa butter substitutes. It can be concluded that Sal fat, largely free from oxidized fatty acid glycerides contain about 69% symmetrical triglycerides.

SAL Fat as component of Cocoa Butter Equivalents (CBEs)

Cocoa butter has unique chemical and physical properties which endow chocolates with special aesthetic and universally edible qualities. The important attributes like remaining hard and brittle at 30˚C and yet melting fully and completely at 35˚C, the rapid transformatio n to a most stable polymorphic form which helps in tempering, demoulding, and hardening of the chocolate bars are due to the unique chemical composition comprising about 80% symmetrical triglycerides, that is POP, POS and SOS. Due to its chemical composition, Sal fat is used as a substitute for cocoa butter in confectionery, as well as a substitute in soap making, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and medicines. Processed fat is used in products such as waxes, polishes, cosmetics, paper coatings and multipurpose greases.

Sal Stearine

Sal Stearine is a fractionated product of Sal Fat produced by physical press fractionation or by Solvent fractionation process. The stearine thus obtained is 56% to 70% of the Sal fat taken initially. The stearine is harder than cocoa butter and can thus be used easily as a substitute in Cocoa Butter Equivalents and Replacers, which is why it’s also used in the manufacture of plain chocolates.

Sal Oleine

When Sal fat is fractionated, Sal Oleine is obtained. Sal Oleine is liquid at room temperature, with a certain part of it - forming solid lumps. Sal Oleine is effective as as an emollient, which is why it’s used in skincare products and other cosmetics.

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